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NCLEX Practice Questions on Nutrition

A Multiple Choice Question on Nutrition

Question: A woman with severe anemia is receiving Aranesp (darbepoetin alfa) injections. As her nurse, you inform her that in order to make the medication as effective as possible, she should consume a diet rich in which of the following?

A) Potassium
B) Iron
C) Selenium
D) Magnesium

Answer: Aranesp, Epogen, and Procrit are drugs that stimulate the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells and thereby treat anemia. Each new RBC is filled with hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in RBCs. Each hemoglobin molecule absolutely requires iron to function. As such, as new RBCs are being formed, they need a sufficient supply of iron in order to become fully functional. Most people on erythropoiesis-stimulating drugs require iron supplementation. Selenium and magnesium levels are not altered by these drugs. Potassium supplementation could be dangerous if the basis for the severe anemia is chronic kidney disease/failure. Therefore, the correct answer is B.

Topics: Pathophysiology, Nutrition and hydration, Teaching
Nursing Process: Teaching and Learning
NCLEX Category: Basic Care and Comfort
Nurse Types: RN,LPN

References: Karch, A. (2013). Drugs Used to Treat Anemia In Focus On Nursing Pharmacology (pp. 827-831) (6th ed). Philadelphia, Pa: Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

A Select All That Apply (SATA) Question on Nutrition

Question: An ICU patient is started on TPN therapy. Which of the following behaviors demonstrate that the nurse is aware of potential complications? Select all that apply.

A) Monitor glucose levels
B) Monitor patient's temperature
C) Limit number of visitors
D) Measure intake and output
E) Monitor bilirubin levels
F) Monitor serum electrolytes
G) Do active range of motion exercises
H) Obtain an order for wrist restraints

Answer: There is a reason that TPN is avoided unless absolutely necessary; it is associated with many serious complications. The most common are disturbances in glucose, either too high or too low. Catheter-related sepsis may occur in as many as one out of two people on TPN, so it is important to monitor the patient's temperature. Gallbladder problems like cholelithiasis and cholecystitis may occur. The liver also sustains stress and temporary damage resulting in painful hepatomegaly and hyperammonemia (especially in infants). It is difficult to predict volume status in people receiving TPN. Volume overload results from high energy requirements but limited ability to handle the volume of nutrition needed. Because TPN causes bones to demineralize over time doing active range of motion can be beneficial. The number of visitors does not affect TPN therapy. There is not need for restraints. Therefore, the correct answer is ABDEFG.

Topics: Total Parental Nutrition (TPN), Potential for complications, Med-Surg
Nursing Process: Nursing Process
NCLEX Category: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies
Nurse Types: RN

References: Lillis, C., Lynn, P., & Taylor, C. (2015). Nutrition Physical Assessment In Fundamentals of Nursing (pp. 1233-1237). (8th ed). Philadelphia, Pa: Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.